Leadership: Enhancing The Lessons of Experience
Sixth Edition, 2008
Richard Hughes, Robert Ginnett, and Gordon Curphy
McGraw-Hili/Irwin, New York, NY, 10020.
Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)
1. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
The idea of “one-man leadership” is a contradiction in terms
Leadership is a social influence process shared among all members of a group
Followers are part of the leadership process
Leadership is restricted to the influence exerted by someone in a particular role
2. Among the following, ideal followers are more likely to be perceived as
3. Which of the following statements about “common sense” is false?
Effective leadership must be something more than just common sense
What seems obvious after you know the results and what you would have predicted beforehand are not the same thing
One of the challenges of understanding leadership is to know when common sense applies and when it does not
The term “common sense” implies practical knowledge about life that most people have not yet acquired
4. Which of the following statements is false?
One needs nothing more than common sense to be a good leader
Leaders need to recognize that others’ views are useful
Leaders need to recognize when times change and a new direction is called for
One of the challenges of understanding leadership is to know when common sense applies and when it does not
Being a leader is either in one’s genes or not. Which of the following statement is true?
Innate factors more than formative experiences influence leadership
Leadership is either innate or acquired, not both
Typically most individuals can be categorized based on their innate qualities as leaders and non-leaders
Each person can make the most of leadership opportunities he or she faces
6. Identify a myth associated with leadership development.
Good leadership is knowing when common sense applies and when it does not
Good leaders are born with the traits and abilities, which make them successfuI leaders
You can only learn leadership by observing it
Learning to be a better leader depends on the richness of one’s experience and the ability and desire to learn
Which of the following is not a common myth about leadership development?
Good leadership is all common sense
Leaders are born, not made
Leadership can only be taught
You can only learn leadership from experience
8. The change in organizational practices can be attributed to
Appointing women to leadership positions, which is a departure from past practices
The fact that womens’ attitudes have become similar to those of men
Womens’ self-reports of traits such as assertiveness
Legislation prohibiting gender-based discrimination at work
A trend toward less stereotypically masculine characterizations of leadership is representative of the fact that
Leadership roles have changed
Women themselves have changed
Organizational practices have changed
Culture has changed
Encouraging innovation, growth and development and redefined tasks and responsibilities best describes a
Manager in a later stage of development
Leader-manager integrated role
Tend to accept the definitions of situations presented to them
Encourage growth and development in their followers in ways broader than mere job training
Emphasize routinization and control of followers’ behavior
Motivate followers more with extrinsic, even contractual consequences, both positive and negative
Work hard for cooperation
Give clear direction
Give overlapping and ambiguous assignments
Focus on control and results
Leaders, as compared to managers, tend to assess their followers’ performance
Less in terms of personal criteria
More in terms of specific criteria
Less in terms of holistic criteria
More in terms of idiosyncratic criteria
Leaders redefine the parameters of tasks and responsibilities, both for individual followers and for the entire group by all the following ways except
Taking a short-term perspective
Actively change the situations they are in
Through accentuating critical values
By marshaling energy to cope with some new threat
Which of the following statements concerning the manager’s role in manager-follower-situation interactions is true?
Managers tend to reject the definitions of situations presented to them
Managers tend to assign broader rather than narrower tasks for followers to perform
Managers assess their followers’ performance in terms of fairly general job descri ptions
Managers make sure followers conform to policies or procedures
The most commonly cited developmental challenge mentioned by managers, which while adding to personal pressure, also contributed to professional growth are
The responsibility of meeting deadlines
Tasks with the possibility of success and failure
Putting in longer hours at work
Successful executives mention all of the following as negative feelings while describing how they feel while working through potent developmental experiences except feel ing:
In the process of “learning to learn from experience”, people operating in the stabilizing period must
Overcome the caution generated by ongoi ng success
Overcome the tension of challenging what they do not know how to do
Attempt at learning a new set of responses and strategies
Let go of short-term expectations in favor of more long-term learning
19. The content of leadership programs at the university-level
Gives subordinates feedback about their progress
Provides a survey of the major leadership findings
Focuses on strategic planning
Focuses on how to train subordinates
__ consist of descriptions of various leadership situations and are used as a vehicle for leadership discussions.
2l. What is the advantage of role playing as a leadership concept?
Individualized feedback to students through leadership behavior ratings
Depict the challenges commonly faced in the work environment
Used as a vehicle for leadership discussions
Greater transferabiIity to the workplace
Improving interpersonal, oral-communication and written-communication skills are a part of leadership training programs for
Colleges or universities
This technique wherein participants are given a limited amount of time prioritize and respond to a number of notes, is particularly useful in assessing and improving a manager’s planning and time management skills.
In leaderless group discussions, facilitators and observers rate participants, which are used to provide managers with feedback about their
Time management skills
These represent the most sophisticated and expensive method for assessing leadership potential.
26. What is the purpose of modern-day assessment centers?
To select officers for the military
To assess, identify and develop leadership potential
To select civil servants for the government
To select special agents and spies
What is the first step in improving the bench strength of the leaders within an organization?
To promote the right people
To cultivate employee loyalty
To be up-to-date with the latest developments in technology
To evaluate and reward its leaders
28. How can one differentiate between successful and unsuccessful leaders?
By the attributes of their followers
By the attributes they possess
By the productivity of their followers
By the behaviors they exhibit
What is a disadvantage of judging the effectiveness of a leader based on the subordinates’ ratings?
Results are due to factors beyond leaders’ control
There may be no links between ratings and unit performance
Raters’ unwillingness to provide tough feedback
Raters are unaware of true performance
What is the advantage of judging the effectiveness of a leader based on superiors’ ratings?
Subject of leaders’ behaviors
3l. Oftentimes these individuals are given lower performance appraisal ratings because superiors do not want them to get promoted.
Results only managers
I n name on Iy managers
This phenomenon is becoming more prevalent as organizations move toward virtual teams or increase the number of people anyone superior may supervise.
Superiors may be largely unaware or unfamiliar with a target leader’s performance
Superiors do not take the time to provide accurate performance appraisal ratings
Superiors have difficulty dealing with conflict
Superiors would rather give average ratings than deal with the emotions associated with unflattering ratings
An in-depth examination of a leader’s behavior in a particular set of circumstances is a(n)
A politician’s advisor explains how demographic changes in the politician’s district make it important for the politician to spend relatively more time in the district seeing constituents than she has needed to in the recent past. This is an example of
An inspirational appeal
A rational persuasion
When a minister makes an impassioned plea to members of his congregation about the good works which could be accomplished if a proposed addition to the church were built, he is
Making a personal appeal
Making an inspirational appeal
Making a rational persuasion
36. This occurs when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity.
A salesperson’s good-natured or flattering banter with you before you make a decision about purchasing a product exemplifies
Are used when agents seek the aid of others to influence the target
Occur when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity
Occur when the agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a request
Are used when agents ask another to do a favor out of friendship
__ occur when agents make requests based on their position or authority.
A judge who gives a convicted prisoner a suspended sentence but tells him to consider the suspension a “sword hanging over your head” if he breaks the law again is using
Leaders who have only coercive or legitimate power may be able to use only __ to influence followers.
42. People typically use legitimizing or pressure tactics when
They are at a disadvantage
An influencer has the upper hand
They expect resistance
Parties are relatively equal in power
One of the predictions for what the __ generation might look like as its members move through their 20s is that they will develop community norms based on rules, standards and personal responsibility.
44. Moral reasoning refers to
The process leaders use to make decisions about values and ethics
The espoused values of individuals
The morality of individuals per se
The process leaders use to make decisions about ethical and unethical behaviors
In the pre-conventional level of moral development, the criteria for moral behavior
Are based pri mari Iy on self -i nterest
Are based primarily on gaining others’ approval
Are based on universal, abstract principles
Are based primarily on behaving conventionally
46. What do leaders with strong recognition values value the most?
Meeting new people
Leaders with strong __ values enjoy competition, being seen as influential and drive hard to make an impact.
Film directors, musical conductors or marketing leaders are examples of leaders with strong
Leaders with these values are motivated by pleasure, variety and excitement and can often be found in the entertainment, hospitality, recreation, sports, sales or travel industries.
This is not an organizational level of leadership in the principle-centered leadership approach.
5l. Leaders and followers who possess higher levels of this type of intelligence tend to be quick learners and have the ability to make accurate deductions, assumptions and inferences with relatively unfamiliar information.
Analytic i ntell igence
Creative i ntell igence
Students in a school for the mentally challenged did very poorly on standardized tests yet consistently found ways to defeat the school’s elaborate security system. In this situation the students possessed a relatively high level of
Creative i ntell igence
A leader who has a lot of knowledge and experience in leading a pharmaceutical research team may feel like a duck out of water when asked to lead a major fund-raising effort for a charitable institution. This example illustrates that practical intelligence
Is concerned with knowledge and experience
Is domain specific
Is the ability to learn
Is the ability to produce work that is novel
The ability to produce work that is both novel and useful is called
55. Most intelligence and aptitude tests are good examples of
Systems thinki ng
What is traditionally viewed as creativity and are skills that help people recognize novel patterns or connections?
What term relates to a component of creative intelligence that deals with people either preferring to modify what already exists or completely starting over with new solutions?
Lower prudence, higher openness to experience and higher surgency scores are related to
I ntri nsic motivation
59. Creative people are most likely to focus on
The need to meet deadlines
Solving the problem at hand
Which of the following statements concerning 360-degree feedback systems is false?
Companies that used 360-degree feedback systems had a 10.6 per cent decrease in shareholder value
Most 360-degree feedback systems are designed to make comparisons between people
360-degree feedback are data based and provide good development feedback
It provides insight into self-perceptions and others’ perceptions of leadership skills
Which of the following statements about 360-degree feedback systems is true?
360-degree feedback results affect behavioral change per se
360-degree feedback are the only sources of “how” feedback for leadersh i p practitioners
360-degree feedback should be built around an organization’s competency model
It is mandatory for all leaders to receive 360-degree feedback
Strategic differences with management and difficulty making strategic transitions are behaviors exhibited by derailed managers who
Have shown inability to develop or adapt to new bosses
Have shown inability to build and lead a team
Have failed to meet business objectives
Have problems with interpersonal relationships
Derailed managers exhibiting the derailment pattern that has to do with an inability to build relationships with coworkers are characterized by which of the following?
Failure to staff effectively
Lack of hard work
Difficulty making strategic transitions
64. What is cited as the most common reason for CEO failure?
Making poor decisions concerning which markets to pursue
Problems developing a vision or strategy for the company
The inability to meet earnings projections
Failure to keep promises, commitments or deadlines
Which of the following underlies the derailment pattern of the inability of managers to lead and build a team?
The presence of dark side traits
Inadequate distribution channels
Poor decisions concerning which products to develop
Lying about business results
As a difference between male-female patterns, females were more likely to derail because of
Their abrasive interpersonal style
Their inability to deal with complex organizational issues
67. The insight component of the development pipeline concerned with
Providing leaders accurate feedback on their strengths
Acquiring new knowledge and skills
Working on development goals that matter
Seventy to eighty percent of the action steps in a development plan should be
Acquiring new knowledge
Which of the following would most likely result in consistently higher effort and performance?
Goals that are both specific and difficult
Goals that are very difficult to achieve
“Do your best” goals
Having clear goals
70. Which of the following statements about goals is false?
Determining just how challenging to make goals creates a dilemma for leaders
Goal commitment is critical and is often as high as commitment to goals followers helped to set
Followers exerted the greatest effort when goals were accompanied by feedback
Easily attainable goals result in higher levels of effort and performance
71. This occurs when leaders articulate high expectations for followers.
Leaders who have little faith in their followers’ ability to accomplish a goal are rarely disappointed. This refers to
“Motivated performance is the result of conscious choice” is a fundamental assumption of
74. In effort-to-performance expectancy,
The follower must determine whether the outcome is sufficiently positive to be worth the time and effort
The follower esti mates the Ii kel i hood of receivi ng a reward, given that she achieves the desired level of performance
The follower must determine the likely outcomes, assuming that the previous two conditions have been met
The follower estimates the likelihood of performing the desired behavior adequately, assuming she puts forth the required effort
75. Personal inputs refer to
76. Which of the following is most important in the equity theory?
The evaluation of equality of inputs or equality of outcomes
The absolute value of one’s own outcomes considered by itself
The absolute value of one’s own inputs considered by itself
The relationship between the two ratios
77. Which of the following statements about the equity theory is true?
If the ratios are significantly different, a follower is not motivated to take change
As long as there is general equality between the two ratios, there is motivation to change
The perception of inequity creates a state of tension and an inherent pressure for change
Exactly what the follower will be motivated to do depends on the direction of equality
One’s core beliefs about being able to successfully perform a given task is called
79. Which of the following is an advantage of decentralized organizations?
Uniform policies and procedures
Minimal participation in the decision process
Greater acceptance and ownership of decision outcomes
Clearer coordination procedures
80. What is the disadvantage of functional organizations?
Poor coord i nation across departments
Duplication of resources
Less in depth technical expertise
Weak coord i nation across different prod uct grou pi ngs
What is the advantage of a product organization design?
Centralized decision making and control
Efficient use of scarce resources
Skill development for technical personnel
It places a premium on organizational goals
An organization with a stable, well-established product line and the need for close coordination between functions would be best off with which type of design?
83. What is the greatest disadvantage of the matrix design?
Decreased lateral communication and coordination
Inefficient utilization of human resources
Employees end up working for two bosses
It can create scheduling nightmares
This represents the degree to which a leader’s work group is affected by the activities of other subunits within the organization.
Latera I interdependence
85. This is the weakest element of situational favorability.
86. The highest levels of situational favorability occur when
Leader-member relations are good, the task is structured and position power is high
There are high levels of leader-member conflict, the task is unstructured and the leader does not have the power to reward/punish subordinates
Leader-member relations are good, the task is unstructured and position power is low
There are high levels of leader-member conflict, the task is structured and the leader has the power to reward/punish subordinates
Which leader behaviors are marked by attention to the competing demands of treating followers equally while recognizing status differentials between the leader and the followers?
88. Leaders exhibiting participative leadership
Are very similar to the task behaviors from SLT
Are very similar to the relationship behaviors in SLT
Engage in the behaviors that mark consultative and group behaviors
Would be seen as both demanding and supporting in interactions with their followers
89. Internal-Iocus-of-control followers
Are much more satisfied with leaders who exhibit achievement-oriented behaviors than they are with leaders who are supportive
Believe outcomes are a result of their own decisions
Are more satisfied with directive leader behaviors than they are with participative leader behaviors
Believe they are, relatively speaking, “pawns of fate”
Which of the following is not a variable in the path-goal theory?
9l. The __ authority system is associated with leaders thought to possess, divine or superhuman qualities.
92. Transactional leadership
Occurs when a person possesses authority not because of tradition, but because of the laws that govern the position occupied
Serves to change the status quo by appealing to followers’ values and their sense of higher purpose
Occurs when the traditions of society dictate who has authority and how this authority can be used
Occurs when leaders and followers are in some type of exchange relationship in order to get needs met
This leadership serves to change the status quo by appealing to followers’ values and their sense of higher purpose.
94. Which of the following statements is true?
Transactional leaders are always controversial
All transformational leaders are charismatic
All charismatic leaders are transformational
Transactional leaders are also adept at reframing issues
According to the research on charismatic leadership, which of the following characteristics would fall in the leader category in the L-F-S interactional framework?
Feelings of empowerment
96. According to research, the leader’s vision is
Consistent with current realities
Usually presented in written form so subordinates can study it
Often depressing (in the short run) for the subordinates who must change their view
Often a collaborative effort
97. Which of the following statements about transformational leaders is true?
They are inherently future-oriented
Their vision is based solely on their own values
They sometimes take credit for others’ accomplishments
They tend to be emotionally expressive
98. Charismatic leaders
Use abstract and colorless rational discourse to reframe issues
Make extensive use of stories to make their points
Are adept at tailoring their language to particular groups
Are good in engaging groups mentally and emotionally
99. Charismatic leaders tend to be
This takes place when followers do no more than abide by the policies and procedures surrounding change requests.