A MANAGER’S DILEMMA
31. According to the company profile in ” A Manager’s Dilemma”, which of the following best describes the type of decision Mark Galasso is faced with in the introduction of his company’s new dirt bike?
a. programmed decision
32. All of the following are mentioned as major competitors of Connondale Corporation according to the company profile in “A Manager’s Dilemma” EXCEPT:
c. Harley Davidson
THE DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
33. Decision-making is (simplistically) typically described as which of the following?
a. deciding what is correct
b. putting preference on paper
c. choosing among alternatives
d. processing information to completion
e. the end result of data collection
34. A series of eight steps that begins with identifying a problem and decision criteria and allocating weights to those criteria; moves to developing, analyzing, and selecting an alternative that can resolve the problem; implements the alternative; and concludes with evaluating the decision’s effectiveness is the ______________.
a. decision-making process.
b. managerial process.
c. maximin style.
d. bounded rationality approach.
e. legalistic opportunism process.
35. The first step in the decision-making process is which of the following?
a. developing decision criteria
b. allocating weights to the criteria
c. analyzing alternatives
d. identifying a problem
e. implementing the decision’s effectiveness
36. “A discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs” describes which of the steps in the decision-making process?
a. criteria weight allocation
b. analysis of alternatives
c. problem identification
d. decision effectiveness evaluation
e. decision criteria identification
37. Which of the following statements is true concerning problem identification?
a. Problems are generally obvious.
b. A symptom and a problem are basically the same.
c. Well trained managers generally agree on what is considered a problem.
d. The problem must be such that it exerts some type of pressure for the manager to act.
e. To be considered a problem, managers must be aware of the discrepancy but not have the resources
necessary to take action.
38. Which of the following must be present in order to initiate the decision-making process?
a. plenty of time
b. pressure to act
c. a lack of authority
d. a lack of resources
e. environmental certainty
39. Managers aren’t likely to characterize something as a problem if they perceive ______________.
a. they don’t have authority to act.
b. pressure to act.
c. a discrepancy.
d. they have sufficient resources.
e. they have budgetary authority.
40. If a manager was purchasing a computer system, issues such as price and model are examples of which part of the decision-making process?
a. problem identification
b. criteria weight allocation
c. identifying decision criteria
d. evaluating decision effectiveness
e. implementing the alternative
41. Which of the following is the step in the decision-making process that follows identifying a problem and decision criteria?
a. allocating weights to the criteria
b. analyzing the alternatives
c. selecting the best alternative
d. implementing the alternative
e. evaluating the decision’s effectiveness
42. In allocating weights to the decision criteria, which of the following is helpful to remember?
a. All weights must be the same.
b. The total of the weights should sum to 1.0.
c. Every factor criterion considered, regardless of its importance, must receive some weighting.
d. Assign the most important criterion a score, and then assign weights against that standard.
e. The most important and least important criteria should receive the inverse weighting standard.
43. In step six of the decision-making process, each alternative is evaluated by appraising it against the ______________.
a. subjective goals of the decision maker.
c. assessed values.
d. implementation strategy.
e. discrepancy status.
44. Selecting an alternative in the decision-making process is accomplished by ______________.
a. choosing the alternative with the highest score.
b. choosing the one you like best.
c. selecting the alternative that has the lowest price.
d. selecting the alternative that is the most reliable.
e. choosing the alternative you think your boss would prefer.
45. ______________ includes conveying a decision to those affected and getting their commitment to it.
a. Selecting an alternative
b. Evaluation of decision effectiveness
c. Implementation of the alternatives
d. Analyzing alternatives
e. Developing alternatives
46. Which of the following is important in effectively implementing the chosen alternative in the decision-making process?
a. getting upper management support
b. double checking your analysis for potential errors
c. allowing those impacted by the outcome to participate in the process
d. ignoring criticism concerning your chosen alternative
e. implementing your chosen alternative quickly
47. Which of the following is the final step in the decision-making process?
a. identifying the problem
b. evaluating the decision’s effectiveness
c. identifying decision criteria
d. selecting an alternative that can resolve the problem
e. allocating weights to alternatives.
48. Which of the following is important to remember in evaluating the effectiveness of the decision-making process?
a. Ignore criticism concerning the decision-making.
b. You may have to start the whole decision process over.
c. Restart the decision-making process if the decision is less than 50% effective.
d. 90% of problems with decision-making occur in the implementation step.
e. Keep track of problems with the chosen alternative, but only change those issues that upper management demand.
THE PERVASIVENESS OF DECISION MAKING
49. Decision-making is synonymous with ______________.
50. Which of the following is not a “planning” decision?
a. What are the organization’s long-term objectives?
b. What strategies will best achieve those objectives?
c. How many subordinates should I have report directly to me?
d. What should the organization’s short-term objectives be?
e. How difficult should individual goals be?
51. Which of the following is not an “organizing” decision?
a. What are the organization’s long-term objectives?
b. How many employees should I have report directly to me?
c. How should jobs be designed?
d. How much centralization should there be in the organization?
e. When should the organization implement a different structure?
52. Which of the following is not a “leading” decision?
a. How do I handle employees who appear to be low in motivation?
b. What is the most effective leadership style in a given situation?
c. How will a specific change affect worker productivity?
d. When is the right time to stimulate conflict?
e. How should jobs be designed?
53. Which of the following is not a “controlling” decision?
a. What activities in the organization need to be controlled?
b. How should those activities be controlled?
c. When is a performance deviation significant?
d. When is the right time to stimulate conflict?
e. What type of management information system should the organization have?
THE MANAGER AS DECISION MAKER
54. Managers are assumed to be ______________; they make consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints.
55. Rational managerial decision-making assumes that decisions are made in the best ______________ interests of the organization.
56. Which of the following is true about managerial rational decision-making?
a. Most decisions managers face allow for rational decision-making.
b. Managers can make rational decisions if provided the right set of assumptions.
c. Rational decision-making is always possible if the goals are clear and straightforward.
d. Time pressure forces managers into rational decision-making.
e. Rational decision-making is generally possible when the decision involves “things” but not people.
57. Which of the following is not a valid assumption about rationality?
a. The problem is clear and unambiguous.
b. A single well-defined goal is to be achieved.
c. Preferences are clear.
d. Preferences are constantly changing.
e. No time or cost constraints exist.
58. In “bounded rationality,” managers construct ______________ models that extract the essential features from problems.
59. According to the text, because managers can’t possibly analyze all information on all alternatives, managers ______________, rather than ______________.
a. maximize; satisfice
b. maximize; minimize
c. satisfice; minimize
d. satisfice; maximize
60. The type of decision-making in which the solution is considered “good enough” is known as which of the following?
e. “gut feeling”
61. When a decision-maker chooses an alternative under perfect rationality, she chooses a ______________ decision, while under bounded rationality she chooses a ______________ decision.
a. minimizing; satisfying
b. satisficing; maximizing
c. maximizing; satisficing
d. maximizing; minimizing
e. minimizing; maximizing
62. An increased commitment to a previous decision despite evidence that it may have been wrong is referred to as _____________.
a. economies of commitment
b. escalation of commitment
c. dimensional commitment
d. expansion of commitment
63. An unconscious process of making decisions on the basis of experience and accumulated judgment is ______________ decision-making.
64. According to the text, all of the following are aspects of intuition EXCEPT:
a. experienced-based decisions
b. affect-initiated decisions
c. cognitive-based decisions
d. values or ethics-based decisions
e. programmed decisions
65. According to the text, _____________ are straightforward, familiar, and easily defined problems.
a. poorly-structured problems
b. well-structured problems
c. unique problems
d. non-programmed problems
e. programmed problems
66. Well-structured problems align well with which type of decision-making?
d. “gut feeling”
e. “garbage can” approach
67. The most efficient way to handle well-structured problems is through ______________ decision-making.
68. ______________ decision-making is relatively simple and tends to rely heavily on previous solutions.
69. Programmed decision-making tends to rely on which of the following?
a. the problem solver’s ability to think on his/her feet
b. the development of a clear set of alternative solutions
c. previous solutions
d. identification of the actual problem
e. accurate weighting of the decision criteria
70. A ______________ is a series of interrelated sequential steps that a manager can use for responding to a structured problem.
71. A ______________ is an explicit statement that tells a manager what he or she ought or ought not to do.
72. A ______________ provides guidelines to channel a manager’s thinking in a specific direction.
73. Which of the following factors contrasts the difference between a policy and a rule?
a. a policy establishes parameters
b. a rule establishes parameters
c. a policy is more explicit
d. a rule is more ambiguous
e. a policy leaves little to interpretation
74. According to the text, a ______________ typically contains an ambiguous term that leaves interpretation up to the decision maker.
75. A business school’s statement that it “strives for productive relationships with local organizations,” is an example of a ______________.
76. Which of the following is a characteristic of poorly-structured problems?
a. They are typical.
b. They tend to be rehashed problems from the organization.
c. Information is straightforward.
d. They tend to have incomplete or ambiguous information.
e. They are fast breaking in nature.
77. When problems are ______________, managers must rely on ______________ in order to develop unique solutions.
a. well-structured; nonprogrammed decision making
b. well-structured; pure intuition
c. poorly-structured; nonprogrammed decision making
d. poorly-structured; programmed decision making
78. Which of the following terms is associated with nonprogrammed decisions?
79. Lower-level managers typically confront what type of decision-making?
80. What type of decision-making facilitates organizational efficiency?
81. Which of the following is an accurate statement concerning the impact of programmed decisions on organizations?
a. They maximize the need for managers to exercise discretion.
b. They decrease the need for high-cost managerial talent.
c. They increase the amount of judgment needed by managers.
d. They decrease organizational efficiency.
e. They are associated with Creative Operating Procedures.
82. ______________ is a situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because the outcome of every alternative is known.
83. If an individual knows the price of three similar cars at different dealerships, he/she is operating under what type of decision-making condition?
84. ______________ is those conditions in which the decision maker is able to estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes.
85. A retail clothing store manager who estimates how much to order for the current spring season based on last spring’s outcomes is operating under what kind of decision-making condition?
86. ______________ is a situation in which a decision maker has neither certainty nor reasonable probability estimates available.
87. A person at a horse racetrack who bets all of his/her money on the odds-based longshot to “win” (rather than “place” or “show”) is making what kind of choice?
88. Which of the following best describes “maximizing the minimum possible payoff?”
89. An individual making a “maximin” type of choice has what type of psychological orientation concerning uncertain decision-making?
90. Which of the following would best describe the psychological orientation of an individual making a “maximax” type of choice?
91. According to the text, a manager who desires to minimize his or her maximim “regret” will opt for a ______________ choice.
92. All of the following are mentioned in the text as decision-making styles EXCEPT:
93. Which of the following decision-making styles have low tolerance for ambiguity and are rational in their way of thinking?
94. A manager who “by tomorrow wants to know the most logical answer to the problem that will increase profits for this month” has which of the following decision-making styles?
95. The decision-making style that makes fast decisions and focuses on the short terms is referred to as the ______________ style.
96. According to the text, which of the following decision-making styles often result in making decisions with minimal information and assessing few alternatives?
97. A(n) ____________-type decision maker has much greater tolerance for ambiguity than do directive types.
98. According to the text, ______________ are best characterized as careful decision makers with the ability to adapt or cope with unique situations.
99. Which of the following is the decision-making style that would most likely look at as many alternatives as possible and focus on the long run?
100. Which of the following decision-making styles focus on the long run and are very good at finding creative solutions to problems?
101. A manager who would decide what computer system to purchase for the department by holding a meeting and receiving feedback from his/her subordinates matches with which type of decision-making style?
102. According to the text, ______________ style decision makers are concerned about the achievements of subordinates and are receptive to suggestions from others.
103. _____________ style decision makers often use meetings to communicate, although they try to avoid conflict.
MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY
104. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the featured box “Managing Workforce Diversity” as a valuable reason manager’s should use diverse employees in the decision making process?
a. Diverse employees can provide fresh perspectives on issues.
b. Diverse employees can offer differing interpretations on how a problem is defined.
c. Diverse employees tend to make decisions faster than a homogeneous group of employees.
d. Diverse employees usually are more creative in generating alternatives.
e. Diverse employees usually are more flexible in resolving issues.
105. All of the following are mentioned in the featured box “Managing Workforce Diversity” as drawbacks to using diversity in decision making EXCEPT:
a. a lack of a common perspective among team members.
b. language barrier among team members.
c. seeking out diverse opinions can make the decision-making process overly simple.
d. difficulty to reach a single agreement or to agree on specific actions.